哈马斯的恐怖同样也是关于民粹主义代价的一课

这篇文章是《华盛顿邮报》上刊登的,因为有付费墙的原因,可能大部分人看不到。因为想学英语,我是付费用户,因此我就偷出来了,翻译成中文,让大家看看。作者是尤瓦尔·赫拉利,《人类简史》的作者,看看犹太人是怎么评价哈马斯vs以色列这件事的。

因为文章是我“偷的”,所以任何人也可以“偷”这篇文章。

原文链接是:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2023/10/11/netanyahu-populism-weakened-israeli-security/

The Hamas horror is also a lesson on the price of populism

哈马斯的恐怖同样也是关于民粹主义代价的一课

Yuval Noah Harari is the author of “Sapiens,” “Homo Deus” and “Unstoppable Us” and a professor of history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

尤瓦尔·赫拉利是《人类简史》、《未来简史》以及《我们无法阻挡》的作者,同时也是耶路撒冷希伯来大学的历史学教授。

Israelis are struggling to understand what has just hit us. We first compared the current disaster to the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Fifty years ago, the armies of Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack and inflicted on Israel a string of military defeats, before the Israel Defense Forces regrouped, regained the initiative and turned the tables.

以色列人正在努力理解我们刚刚经历了什么。我们首先将当前的灾难比作1973年的赎罪日战争。五十年前,埃及和叙利亚的军队发动了一场突然的攻击,并对以色列造成了一系列军事上的失败,直到以色列国防军重新整合,重新掌握了主动权,并扭转了局势。

But as more and more horrific stories and images emerge about the massacre of entire communities, it dawned on us that what has happened is nothing like the Yom Kippur War. In newspapers, on social media and in family gatherings, people are making comparisons to the Jewish people’s darkest hours — as when the mobile killing units of the Nazi Einsatzgruppen surrounded and murdered Jewish villagers during the Holocaust, and when pogroms were waged against Jews in the Russian Empire.

但是,随着越来越多关于整个社区被屠杀的恐怖故事和图片的出现,我们意识到发生的事情与赎罪日战争完全不同。在报纸上、社交媒体上以及家庭聚会中,人们正在将此次事件与犹太人历史上最黑暗的时刻进行比较——就像纳粹行动小组在大屠杀期间包围并杀害犹太村民,以及在俄罗斯帝国对犹太人进行的大屠杀一样。

I personally have family and friends in the kibbutzim Be’eri and Kfar Aza, and have heard many horrifying stories. Hamas had full control of these two communities for hours. The terrorists went from house to house, systematically murdering families, killing parents in front of their children and taking hostages, even babies and grandmothers. Terrified survivors locked themselves inside cupboards and cellars, calling to the army and police for help that failed to come until, often, too late.

我个人在贝埃里和卡法阿扎的集体农庄里有家人和朋友,我听说了很多恐怖的故事。哈马斯对这两个社区有完全的控制权,持续了好几个小时。恐怖分子逐家逐户地进行系统性的谋杀,他们在孩子面前杀害父母,并挟持人质,甚至包括婴儿和老奶奶。惊恐的幸存者将自己锁在橱柜和地窖里,向军队和警察求救,但援助往往直到最后关头才到达,往往为时已晚。

My 99-year-old uncle and his 89-year-old wife are members of Be’eri. All contact with them was cut shortly after Hamas took over the kibbutz. They hid in their house for hours as dozens of terrorists went rampaging and butchering. I received word that they survived. I know many people who have just received the worst news of their lives.

我的99岁的叔叔和他89岁的妻子是贝埃里的成员。在哈马斯接管集体农庄后不久,与他们的所有联系就被切断了。他们在家中躲藏了好几个小时,当时有几十名恐怖分子在肆虐和屠杀。我接到消息,他们幸存了下来。我知道很多人刚刚收到了他们一生中最糟糕的消息。

My aunt and uncle are two tough Jews — born in Eastern Europe in the interwar years, they have already lost one world in the Holocaust. We grew up with stories about defenseless Jews hiding from the Nazis in cupboards and cellars, with no one coming to help them. The state of Israel was founded to ensure that this would never happen again.

我的叔叔和阿姨是两个坚韧的犹太人——他们在两次世界大战之间的年代出生于东欧,他们已经在大屠杀中失去了一个世界。我们在听到关于无助的犹太人在橱柜和地窖里躲避纳粹,没有人来帮助他们的故事中长大。以色列国的建立就是为了确保这种事情不再发生。

So how did it happen? How did the state of Israel go missing in action?

那么,这是怎么发生的呢?以色列国怎么会在行动中失踪呢?

On one level, Israelis are paying the price for years of hubris, during which our governments and many ordinary Israelis felt we were so much stronger than the Palestinians, that we could just ignore them. There is much to criticize about the way Israel has abandoned the attempt to make peace with the Palestinians and has held for decades millions of Palestinians under occupation.

在某种程度上,以色列人正在为多年的傲慢付出代价,期间我们的政府和许多普通以色列人觉得我们比巴勒斯坦人强大得多,可以直接忽略他们。有很多可以批评的地方,关于以色列如何放弃与巴勒斯坦人和解的尝试,以及如何在几十年来将数百万巴勒斯坦人置于占领之下。

But this does not justify the atrocities committed by Hamas, which in any case has never countenanced any possibility for a peace treaty with Israel and has done everything in its power to sabotage the Oslo peace process. Anyone who wants peace must condemn and impose sanctions on Hamas and demand the immediate release of all hostages and Hamas’s complete disarmament.

但这并不能为哈马斯犯下的暴行辩护,哈马斯在任何情况下都不会接受与以色列签订和平条约的可能性,并已竭尽全力破坏奥斯陆和平进程。任何希望和平的人都必须谴责哈马斯,对其实施制裁,并要求立即释放所有人质和哈马斯的完全解除武装。

Moreover, irrespective of how much blame one ascribes to Israel, this does not explain the dysfunction of the state. History isn’t a morality tale.

此外,无论你怎么责备以色列,这都无法解释这个国家的功能失调。历史并不是一个道德故事。

The real explanation for Israel’s dysfunction is populism rather than any alleged immorality. For many years, Israel has been governed by a populist strongman, Benjamin Netanyahu, who is a public-relations genius but an incompetent prime minister. He has repeatedly preferred his personal interests over the national interest and has built his career on dividing the nation against itself. He has appointed people to key positions based on loyalty more than qualifications, took credit for every success while never taking responsibility for failures, and seemed to give little importance to either telling or hearing the truth.

以色列功能失调的真正原因是民粹主义,而不是任何所谓的不道德行为。多年来,以色列一直被一个民粹主义的强人,本杰明·内塔尼亚胡,所统治,他是公关的天才,但是一个无能的总理。他一再地把自己的个人利益置于国家利益之上,以将国家分裂为自己的职业生涯。他根据忠诚度而非资历任命人们担任关键职位,对每一次成功都抢功,但从不对失败负责,似乎对说出或听到真相并不重视。

The coalition Netanyahu established in December 2022 has been by far the worst. It is an alliance of messianic zealots and shameless opportunists, who ignored Israel’s many problems — including the deteriorating security situation — and focused instead on grabbing unlimited power for themselves. In pursuit of this goal, they adopted extremely divisive policies, spread outrageous conspiracy theories about state institutions that oppose their policies, and labeled the country’s serving elites as “deep state” traitors.

内塔尼亚胡在2022年12月建立的联盟到目前为止是最糟糕的。这是一个由弥赛亚狂热分子和无耻机会主义者组成的联盟,他们忽视了以色列的许多问题——包括日益恶化的安全局势——而把重点放在为自己抓取无限的权力上。为了实现这个目标,他们采取了极其分裂的政策,散布关于反对他们政策的国家机构的荒谬的阴谋论,并将国家的现任精英标记为“深层政府”的叛徒。

The government was repeatedly warned by its own security forces and by numerous experts that its policies were endangering Israel and eroding Israeli deterrence at a time of mounting external threats. Yet when the IDF’s chief of staff asked for a meeting with Netanyahu to warn him about the security implications of the government’s policies, Netanyahu refused to meet him. When Defense Minister Yoav Gallant nevertheless raised the alarm, Netanyahu fired him. He was then forced to reinstate Gallant only because of an outbreak of popular outrage. Such behavior over many years enabled a calamity to strike Israel.

在外部威胁增加的时期,政府多次被自己的安全部队和众多专家警告,其政策正在危及以色列并侵蚀以色列的威慑力。然而,当以色列国防军参谋长要求与内塔尼亚胡会面,警告他政府政策的安全隐患时,内塔尼亚胡拒绝与他会面。当国防部长约阿夫·加兰特尽管如此提出警告时,内塔尼亚胡解雇了他。由于民众的愤怒爆发,他被迫重新任命加兰特。多年来,这种行为使得灾难降临以色列。

No matter what one thinks of Israel and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the way populism corroded the Israeli state should serve as a warning to other democracies all over the world.

无论你对以色列和以色列-巴勒斯坦冲突持何种观点,民粹主义如何腐蚀以色列国家的方式都应该对全世界的其他民主国家起到警告作用。

Israel can still save itself from catastrophe. It still enjoys a decisive military edge over Hamas, as well as over its many other enemies. The long memory of Jewish suffering is now galvanizing the nation. The IDF and other state organs are recovering from their initial shock. Civil society is mobilizing like never before, filling many gaps left by governmental dysfunction. Citizens stand in long queues to donate blood, welcome refugees from the war zone into their homes and donate food, clothes and other necessities.

以色列仍然可以从灾难中拯救自己。它在哈马斯以及许多其他敌人面前仍然拥有决定性的军事优势。犹太人长期的苦难记忆现在正在激励这个国家。以色列国防军和其他国家机构正在从最初的震惊中恢复过来。公民社会正在像以前从未有过的方式进行动员,填补了政府功能失调留下的许多空白。公民们排长队献血,欢迎来自战区的难民进入他们的家,并捐赠食物、衣物和其他必需品。

In this hour of need, we also call upon our friends throughout the world to stand by us. There is much to criticize about Israel’s past behavior. The past cannot be changed, but hopefully once victory over Hamas is secured, Israelis will not only hold our current government to account, but will also abandon populist conspiracies and messianic fantasies — and make an honest effort to realize Israel’s founding ideals of democracy at home and peace abroad.

在这个需要的时刻,我们也呼吁全世界的朋友们站在我们这边。对以色列过去的行为有很多可以批评的地方。过去无法改变,但我们希望一旦哈马斯被打败,以色列人不仅会让我们现在的政府负责,也会抛弃民粹主义的阴谋和弥赛亚的幻想——并且会诚实地努力实现以色列的创立理念,即在国内实现民主,在海外实现和平。

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CJZhang
6 月 前

文章写得不够深刻,有种站着说话,不嫌腰疼的感觉。建议联合国将巴勒斯坦地区,委托给中国统治,凭五千年治理术,运用城乡户籍制度等文明手段,立竿见影。同时,也彰显中国模式的优越性,几年后,巴勒斯坦地区,村村通高铁,过上小康生活

SURA
5 月 前

或许有一天,以色列会说整个地球都是‘应许之地’

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